Nyheter / News januari 2020 publicerar SITES nyheter enbart på engelska

At the Gothenburg university research infrastructure, Skogaryd Research Catchment (SRC), not only is research conducted but also education. Every year different courses from environmental and Earth science programs, from University of Gothenburg and other universities, visit SRC for one or several days.

Students at the new visitor platform overlooking the rewetting project at Följemaden. Photo: Tobias Rütting Students at the new visitor platform overlooking the rewetting project at Följemaden. Photo: Tobias Rütting

This week, the first-year students of the Environmental Science program visited SRC, as part of their base course in Environmental Sciences. They learned about the different ecosystems within the catchment, how greenhouse gases are measured by different methods and about the SITES Water program at the station. One topic that was discussed is how the lateral export of carbon contributes to the understanding the carbon sink-source strength of ecosystems and its importance for the landscape carbon balance.

A walk in the forest: can we see the difference between a selectively cut forest and an uncut stand? Photo: Tobias Rütting A walk in the forest: can we see the difference between a selectively cut forest and an uncut stand? Photo: Tobias Rütting

An important part of science education is field work. Therefore, the students visited two of the research locations at SRC to see instrumentation and the large-scale experiments conducted. At Följemaden, the students were shown the rewetting of a peatland, that has been drained and under agricultural and forest management for 150 years. Among the topics discussed was, can we turn a greenhouse gas source back into a sink? At the central forest area, the students looked at the selectively harvested stand, which is comparing a clearcut and a stand with an extended rotation period. The students discussed, how does the carbon and greenhouse gas balance differ between the management options? The discussion also touched on more general questions regarding forests and forest management. As always, students were curious and had valuable question, stimulating a lively discussion.

Several inflows to Lake Bolmen are of interest to study to understand the brownification of the lake. The inflow river, Ryds Å, entering the lake south east of Bolmen, flows through an old peatland, Äspenäs. The peatland is thought to have an impact on the color of the water. There is no previous data on the brownification of Ryds Å, nor about its contribution of brown-colored water to the lake. In general, the available data on the hydrology of the river and its catchment are very sparse. It is therefore necessary to acquire such data to analyze how the peat area is affecting Ryds Å, its contribution to brownification in the lake, and the relationship between them.

Frida Karlsson Öhman and Clemens Klante are getting ready to measure the flow and water quality. (Photo: Emelie Ström) Frida Karlsson Öhman and Clemens Klante are getting ready to measure the flow and water quality. (Photo: Emelie Ström)

This fall, two Master students in Environmental Engineering at Lund University, Emelie Ström and Frida Karlsson Öhman, will look further into this topic. The aim of their Master thesis is to quantify the brownification of Ryds Å. Further relevant parameters concerning the water quality in Ryds Å, such as pH, temperature, turbulence and chlorophyll, will also be quantified. The project will thereby consist of field work, including taking water samples and making a flow analysis, and laboratory work at the research station SITES Bolmen. The laboratory work includes filtration and spectrophotometry.
Emelie and Frida started their field work this week at Bolmen Research Station, and will continue there the next four weeks. They are in guidance of their assistant supervisor, Clemens Klante, Research Manager at SITES Bolmen Research Station, and their supervisor at Lund University, Professor Magnus Larson.

The SITES 2023 Calendar theme is “Data in Focus”. The openly available data produced within SITES and stored on the SITES Data Portal is the “golden thread” of the infrastructure, allowing users access to ecosystem data that covers diverse habitats and climate zones across geographical gradients in Sweden. Each month follow along as we highlight a unique SITES dataset. 

SITES has three Thematic Programs that strengthen the collaboration within the network of stations in remote sensing, water monitoring and aquatic mesocosms. The Thematic Programs facilitate comparison between climate zones, landscape elements and management systems and offer open data from long-term monitoring and experimental installations.

This month the SITES AquaNet Thematic Program is featured, a standardized and open infrastructure to run mesocosm experiments across five SITES lakes spread across Sweden. The mesocosm enclosures are equipped with sensors and a data logging system as well as greenhouse gas chambers to measure environmental parameters in real-time (as seen in the image below for the mesocosm enclosure at Lake Erken). In addition to having access to the mesocosm equipment, SITES AquaNet also offers users technical support from qualified station personnel to run mesocosm experiments, established protocols to standardize both field and laboratory work and open access to data from previous AquaNet experiments as well as time series data in the lake and connecting stream(s) measured in the SITES Water monitoring program.

Link to Data:

Photographer: Holger Villwock; Graphic: Roberto Lo Monaco

In 2017, SITES AquaNet conducted a pilot experiment across the five AquaNet lakes. The experimental tests investigated the interactive effects of bottom-up (a reduction in light availability) and top-down (fish predation) disturbances on the stability of plankton community composition (bacterio-, phyto- and zoo-plankton) and ecosystem functioning. The graph shows sub-hourly oxygen data generated from sensors in the Lake Erken mesocosm experiment run in 2017, aggregated for the four treatments applied to the experiment (Control, Light, Fish, Light & Fish).

The results from the 2017 experiments at all SITES AquaNet stations are available as a data collection on the SITES Data Portal and published in Urrutia-Cordero et al. 2021.

This summer, drone flights were carried out by SITES Spectral over the Följemaden area in Skogaryd. The Följemaden area is part of a re-wetting experiment to investigate measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions caused by soil drainage. The experiment was reported in a previous SITES news item. Starting this year, the area is part of a SITES Spectral monitoring area, and will be monitored by fixed spectral sensors, a phenological camera, and annual drone flights.

Drone image from the flights at Skogaryd (Photo: José Beltran).
SITES Spectral Mast at Skogaryd (Photo: José Beltran ) SITES Spectral Mast at Skogaryd (Photo: José Beltran )

This summer, José Beltran (Lund University) carried out aerial mapping over the Följemaden area, covering 63 ha with the drone flying at 50 m altitude.  Successful drone flights were also conducted at the Myckelmossen mire site and at the central forest in Skogaryd. SITES Skogaryd staff, Per Weslien and David Allbrand, are responsible for all the installations and maintenance of the instruments at the diverse Skogaryd catchment area in SITES, providing invaluable data to answer a range of questions related to ecosystem dynamics in a changing climate. The new SITES Spectral data from the Följemaden area, including processed data from the 2023 flights and the fixed sensors, will be made openly available through the SITES Data Portal.

On August 8th an Eddy Covariance (EC) flux tower was installed at Röbäcksdalen. This pilot project is a collaboration between Röbäcksdalen and Svartberget SITES stations, where the latter provides the tower, which is led by Matthias Peichl at the Department of Forest Ecology Management at SLU in Umeå. The location of the EC flux tower is on one of the larger fields at Röbäcksdalen station and is conveniently located near one of the SITES Spectral mast and between two of the sampling points in SITES Water. The land is used for feed production by the dairy farm operated by the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science at SLU, which is included in SITES Röbäcksdalen.

Julianne Oliveira and Victor Manabe are installing the flux tower on a barley field at Röbäcksdalen. Photo: Johanna Wallsten

This is the first flux tower located in an agricultural system of the Boreal region in northern Sweden. Thus, it will deliver unique data that is expected to provide novel insights into how the carbon dioxide (CO2) ecosystem balance and water flux (e.g. evapotranspiration) vary during crop rotations on dairy farms and, on a more long-term basis, how climate change, and in particular warmer winters, will affect the carbon and water cycle of agricultural fields in the far north. This installment will provide unique complementary data to the measurements made within the SITES Water and SITES Spectral Thematic Programs, and is also the northernmost installment of an EC flux tower on agricultural lands in Sweden.

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