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2021 > 09

Evelina Hiltunen uses a gravity corer to collect sediment from Lake Erken. Photo: Nils Kreuter. Evelina Hiltunen uses a gravity corer to collect sediment from Lake Erken. Photo: Nils Kreuter.
SITES is mapping lake sediments for the lakes included in the thematic programmes SITES Water and SITES AquaNet, to enable a better understanding of biogeochemical processes within the lakes. The latest lake investigated was Lake Erken.

In most lakes, a sub-bottom profiler, using acoustic signals of different wavelengths to produce images showing bottom surface, sediment layers and underlying bedrock, has been employed. In addition, sediment cores have been collected across the lake as well as at targeted areas near the greenhouse gas (GHG) chamber locations (Layer 6 in SITES Water).

Only a few lakes remain to be investigated, with the most recent sediment sampling taking place at Lake Erken. Sediments along the four transects with GHG chambers were successfully collected in mid-September. At each GHG transect two sediment cores were collected, representing a shallow and deep depth within the transect. Most sediment was sampled with a gravity corer, however at shallow depths within the reed belts innovative sampling techniques were required.

Nils Kreuter and Evelina Hiltunen get creative in collecting sediment from the shallow reed belt sampling location. Photo: Christer Strandberg. Nils Kreuter and Evelina Hiltunen get creative in collecting sediment from the shallow reed belt sampling location. Photo: Christer Strandberg.

The next lake scheduled to be sampled as part of the SITES Water sediment campaign is Almbergasjön (Abisko Scientific Research Station), where a deep sediment core has already been collected, and short sediment cores will be collected next month.

Marcus Wallin explaining research ongoing at the Trollberget mire restoration site. Photo: Blaize Denfeld. Marcus Wallin explaining research ongoing at the Trollberget mire restoration site. Photo: Blaize Denfeld.
For a breath of fresh air and due to the continuing pandemic, this year’s version of the annual Krycklan symposium was outdoors the full day. Fresh air it was announced beforehand and fresh air it sure was – it came in gusts and with tiny drops of water in it. Despite the weather conditions, the mood among the ca. 30 participants was overall very good.

The Krycklan symposium brings together people involved in the Krycklan Catchment Study and other interested researchers to hear more about the activities taking place in the catchment, and to gain insight into the most recent research.

Krycklan is an integral part of the Svartberget field research infrastructure. The 6780 ha Krycklan catchment study of today, an expansion of the original 50 ha at Nyänget in the 1980’s, is one of the most instrumented and monitored watersheds in the world. The expanded scope of research includes mercury, weathering, aluminium, carbon cycling, water uptake by trees and connection between soils and surface waters. The overall aim is to create a process-based understanding of the regulation of stream water chemistry.
The Krycklan Symposium started at Trollberget Experimental Area; here a presentation about riparian buffer management is being given. Photo: Blaize Denfeld.
The 18th edition of the symposium featured presentations about Krycklan given on-site in the Krycklan catchment, with talks taking place in the “old” sites at Svartberget as well as in the new study site Trollberget.

Trollberget is a state-of-the-art research field site with six separate study areas:
  • fresh clear-cut forests with even fresher subsequent ditch-cleaning (n=2),
  • fresh clear-cut forest without any ditch-cleaning (n=2)
  • restored (rewetted) wetlands (n=2).
In addition, four neighbouring areas within Krycklan serve as either pristine references (n=2) or as sites historically drained in the 1930s and then left unmanaged (n=2). The monitoring of the catchments at Trollberget started in the autumn of 2018. The forest harvest and wetland restoration took place in 2020, and the ditch cleaning was conducted in September 2021.

Text: Johan Westin.
 
Discharge measurements at Lillsjön, Tarfala Valley. Photo: Karuna Sah. Discharge measurements at Lillsjön, Tarfala Valley. Photo: Karuna Sah.
Tarfala Research Station personnel have been busy this summer measuring the Tarfalajokk discharge.

Wide-spread mass loss from the glaciers in the Tarfala valley this summer, together with some impressive rainfall events, has made Tarfalajokk almost double in size. Continuous measurements throughout the summer, using a fluorescein tracer dye, have been conducted and it is now soon time to go back to Stockholm to analyse the data.

Stream discharge data from Tarfala can be found in SITES Data Portal.

Field work in the Tarfala Valley. Click on the photos for larger versions and more info. Photos by Karuna Sah.

Map illustrating the geographical distribution of sampling sites in Europe. Distribution between different lake types and the characteristics of the lakes is shown as a pie chart. Map illustrating the geographical distribution of sampling sites in Europe. Distribution between different lake types and the characteristics of the lakes is shown as a pie chart.
Have you ever wondered about the invisible bacteria, archaea, viruses and protozoa hiding in our lakes? Each drop of water contains millions of unicellular organisms that cannot be seen with the naked eye, and in order to map and describe the diversity and function of these organisms, we need to use new methods based on their genomic information.
 
In the project called "PELAGICS" (Pan-European Lake Sampling - Microbial Eco-genomics), an international group of researchers use new genetic methods to map freshwater microbial diversity on a European scale. Under the leadership of Michaela Salcher and Rohit Ghai, both from the Czech Republic, 70 large lakes, located in 16 European countries, will be sampled for both bacteria and protozoa. The samples will be used to isolate cultures of bacteria and protozoa, that will be analysed using cultivation methods, and, furthermore, sequencing of the total microorganism genome (metagenomics) will be done.
 
The most recent country visited by the PELAGICS sampling team was Sweden, where researchers collected bacterial samples from Lakes Mälaren, Erken, Vänern, Vättern and Torneträsk. By establishing a collaboration with the SITES Research Stations Abisko and Erken, as well as county administrative boards and the tourism industry, sampling efforts have been organized efficiently and safely and a broader collaboration formed.
 
The project will produce a large amount of sequencing data (20 Tb) in the coming months, and researchers hope that the data will help answer several challenging questions, such as, which organisms make up the freshwater microflora and their distribution in Europe.  The researchers also hope to answer more general questions concerning species formation of microorganisms and local evolutionary adaptations.
 
For the Swedish part of PELAGICS, Professor Stefan Bertilsson (SITES Director/SLU), Dr. Matthias Hoetzinger (SLU) and Professor Silke Langenheder (Uppsala University) are participating.

2021 > 09

Evelina Hiltunen uses a gravity corer to collect sediment from Lake Erken. Photo: Nils Kreuter. Evelina Hiltunen uses a gravity corer to collect sediment from Lake Erken. Photo: Nils Kreuter.
SITES is mapping lake sediments for the lakes included in the thematic programmes SITES Water and SITES AquaNet, to enable a better understanding of biogeochemical processes within the lakes. The latest lake investigated was Lake Erken.

In most lakes, a sub-bottom profiler, using acoustic signals of different wavelengths to produce images showing bottom surface, sediment layers and underlying bedrock, has been employed. In addition, sediment cores have been collected across the lake as well as at targeted areas near the greenhouse gas (GHG) chamber locations (Layer 6 in SITES Water).

Only a few lakes remain to be investigated, with the most recent sediment sampling taking place at Lake Erken. Sediments along the four transects with GHG chambers were successfully collected in mid-September. At each GHG transect two sediment cores were collected, representing a shallow and deep depth within the transect. Most sediment was sampled with a gravity corer, however at shallow depths within the reed belts innovative sampling techniques were required.

Nils Kreuter and Evelina Hiltunen get creative in collecting sediment from the shallow reed belt sampling location. Photo: Christer Strandberg. Nils Kreuter and Evelina Hiltunen get creative in collecting sediment from the shallow reed belt sampling location. Photo: Christer Strandberg.

The next lake scheduled to be sampled as part of the SITES Water sediment campaign is Almbergasjön (Abisko Scientific Research Station), where a deep sediment core has already been collected, and short sediment cores will be collected next month.

Marcus Wallin explaining research ongoing at the Trollberget mire restoration site. Photo: Blaize Denfeld. Marcus Wallin explaining research ongoing at the Trollberget mire restoration site. Photo: Blaize Denfeld.
For a breath of fresh air and due to the continuing pandemic, this year’s version of the annual Krycklan symposium was outdoors the full day. Fresh air it was announced beforehand and fresh air it sure was – it came in gusts and with tiny drops of water in it. Despite the weather conditions, the mood among the ca. 30 participants was overall very good.

The Krycklan symposium brings together people involved in the Krycklan Catchment Study and other interested researchers to hear more about the activities taking place in the catchment, and to gain insight into the most recent research.

Krycklan is an integral part of the Svartberget field research infrastructure. The 6780 ha Krycklan catchment study of today, an expansion of the original 50 ha at Nyänget in the 1980’s, is one of the most instrumented and monitored watersheds in the world. The expanded scope of research includes mercury, weathering, aluminium, carbon cycling, water uptake by trees and connection between soils and surface waters. The overall aim is to create a process-based understanding of the regulation of stream water chemistry.
The Krycklan Symposium started at Trollberget Experimental Area; here a presentation about riparian buffer management is being given. Photo: Blaize Denfeld.
The 18th edition of the symposium featured presentations about Krycklan given on-site in the Krycklan catchment, with talks taking place in the “old” sites at Svartberget as well as in the new study site Trollberget.

Trollberget is a state-of-the-art research field site with six separate study areas:
  • fresh clear-cut forests with even fresher subsequent ditch-cleaning (n=2),
  • fresh clear-cut forest without any ditch-cleaning (n=2)
  • restored (rewetted) wetlands (n=2).
In addition, four neighbouring areas within Krycklan serve as either pristine references (n=2) or as sites historically drained in the 1930s and then left unmanaged (n=2). The monitoring of the catchments at Trollberget started in the autumn of 2018. The forest harvest and wetland restoration took place in 2020, and the ditch cleaning was conducted in September 2021.

Text: Johan Westin.
 
Discharge measurements at Lillsjön, Tarfala Valley. Photo: Karuna Sah. Discharge measurements at Lillsjön, Tarfala Valley. Photo: Karuna Sah.
Tarfala Research Station personnel have been busy this summer measuring the Tarfalajokk discharge.

Wide-spread mass loss from the glaciers in the Tarfala valley this summer, together with some impressive rainfall events, has made Tarfalajokk almost double in size. Continuous measurements throughout the summer, using a fluorescein tracer dye, have been conducted and it is now soon time to go back to Stockholm to analyse the data.

Stream discharge data from Tarfala can be found in SITES Data Portal.

Field work in the Tarfala Valley. Click on the photos for larger versions and more info. Photos by Karuna Sah.

Map illustrating the geographical distribution of sampling sites in Europe. Distribution between different lake types and the characteristics of the lakes is shown as a pie chart. Map illustrating the geographical distribution of sampling sites in Europe. Distribution between different lake types and the characteristics of the lakes is shown as a pie chart.
Have you ever wondered about the invisible bacteria, archaea, viruses and protozoa hiding in our lakes? Each drop of water contains millions of unicellular organisms that cannot be seen with the naked eye, and in order to map and describe the diversity and function of these organisms, we need to use new methods based on their genomic information.
 
In the project called "PELAGICS" (Pan-European Lake Sampling - Microbial Eco-genomics), an international group of researchers use new genetic methods to map freshwater microbial diversity on a European scale. Under the leadership of Michaela Salcher and Rohit Ghai, both from the Czech Republic, 70 large lakes, located in 16 European countries, will be sampled for both bacteria and protozoa. The samples will be used to isolate cultures of bacteria and protozoa, that will be analysed using cultivation methods, and, furthermore, sequencing of the total microorganism genome (metagenomics) will be done.
 
The most recent country visited by the PELAGICS sampling team was Sweden, where researchers collected bacterial samples from Lakes Mälaren, Erken, Vänern, Vättern and Torneträsk. By establishing a collaboration with the SITES Research Stations Abisko and Erken, as well as county administrative boards and the tourism industry, sampling efforts have been organized efficiently and safely and a broader collaboration formed.
 
The project will produce a large amount of sequencing data (20 Tb) in the coming months, and researchers hope that the data will help answer several challenging questions, such as, which organisms make up the freshwater microflora and their distribution in Europe.  The researchers also hope to answer more general questions concerning species formation of microorganisms and local evolutionary adaptations.
 
For the Swedish part of PELAGICS, Professor Stefan Bertilsson (SITES Director/SLU), Dr. Matthias Hoetzinger (SLU) and Professor Silke Langenheder (Uppsala University) are participating.

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