SITES Water aims to build a long-term and well-coordinated measurement program
that will form the basis for the infrastructure where hydrological, physical, chemical and biological parameters in lakes and streams will be measured.

SITES Water builds a unique long-term measurement program where hydrological, physical, chemical, and biological parameters within lakes and streams are measured. Based on this ‘backbone’ infrastructure SITES Water will thus provide data and facilities to address a broad range of scientific questions relevant for the scientific community.

Seven of SITES nine stations participate. SITES Water is either initiated as a new facility at some stations or built upon already existing stream/lake networks at some other stations. SITES Water share and competence develop the team/crews across stations working with these structures and data to deliver a state-of-the-art measurement program.  

SITES Water data

There are several types of data collected within SITES Water divided into six layers.

Each layer are described below and there specify well what type of data that are collected and distributed. All layers are divided into base and advance level where base level apply to all stations, and advance apply to some and are usually a result of already ongoing programs and built on previous knowledge at the station.

Relevant research fields


SITES Water provide background information from measurement programs that can be used by researchers in a number of different research fields e.g. paleolimnology, ecology, physical geography, hydrology and beyond. The wide spectra of the measurements creates endless possibilities in combining dataset, comparing geographical regions and environmental characteristics and hence serve as a basis for a wide range of ecological and biogeochemical studies.

One large potential of SITES Water are the greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and emissions which has a specific aim to establish the first long-term and broad-scale inland water greenhouse gas and carbon (C) networks in the world. Another potential are the archived DNA samples collected, given the increasing eDNA research community. SITES Waters establishment of a base platform regarding accurate and well calibrated water balances enhance the accuracy of catchment to landscape modelling in each stream and lake region.
On the longer-term SITES Water will establish unique multivariate time series across space that will allow the investigation of how fundamental ecological, hydrological, and biogeochemical patterns, processes and regime shifts may respond to climate change.

SITES Water provide the following to researchers
 


A connected stream-lake interaction of varying size, characteristics and climatic regions from each participating station. (No lake at Röbäcksdalen). 

Facilities/infrastructure such as physical access on rafts/floats, soil properties and lake bathymetry maps, data series from physical and chemical variables etc. that can support scientists in a wide range of different research fields.

Field support for “your own” in situ experiments in both lakes and streams
Access to consistent time series data across a large number of stations e.g. Hydrology, temperature, oxygen, pH and other chemical variables etc.

Welcome with you questions, explore the available resources and read about each layer below.
Base level: High resolution maps of relevant parts of inland waters and their catchments, including elevation, soils, land use, lake bathymetry, and vegetation are available.

Advanced level: Sediment depth and organic C and N content of sediments (Abisko, Svartberget and Skogaryd, Erken), P fractions in sediments and paleolimnological data (Erken) are available or under development.  
Base level: Accurate measurements of the main inflowing and outflowing streams, lake water levels, and evaporation from the lake. 

Advanced level: A larger number of flow stations within the catchment for landscape analysis (Svarberget/ Krycklan, Asa and Skogaryd). This data and information can be found within WATER.
Base level: Weather and climate variables are measured (wind speed, wind direction, radiation, air temperature, humidity, and atmospheric pressure and precipitation). The temperature of inflowing and outflowing streams is measured and high frequency temperature profiles will be measured in lakes to be able to determine the thermal structure. The onset, duration, and loss of lake ice cover will be monitored by the use of time lapse cameras. 

Advanced level: Detailed temperature measurements in streams that provide information about ground water input (Svarberget/Krycklan).


Base level: One stream site and a central lake station will be sampled. Manual grab samples from the stream and the lake for chemical analysis are taken on a biweekly basis during ice-free conditions, and on a monthly basis in the presence of lake/stream ice. The central lake station samples will sample at both epi- and hyplimnion during periods of stratification.

Chemical variables such as turbidity, conductivity, pH, fluorescence, absorbance and concentrations of dissolved O2, dissolved and particulate N and P, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), cat- and anions and chlorophyll are measured.

Automated high frequency sensor based measurements (on rafts or platforms) measure temperature and oxygen profiles in the lakes and will link the stations to international lake networks, such as GLEON (www.gleon.org).
The Tarfala lake station is treated differently than the other stations due to the short ice free period and limited accessibility. Moreover, the agricultural station Röbäcksdalen will only participate in the stream measurement program.

Advanced level: Additional high frequency profiling measurements are done at lake Erken, including pH, conductivity, turbidity, chlorophyll a and phycocyanine fluorescence and cDOM. Temperature profiles at several sites within the lake (Erken). For Skogaryd pCO2 and pH are measured on towers and rafts.


Basic level: Samples for later DNA analysis (0,2 um filtration) from the water samples are collected according to the sampling scheme of layer 4 and stored in a central DNA archive.

Advanced level: Phytoplankton and zooplankton samples are taken and archived at Erken including determination of species composition of phytoplankton and zooplankton by microscopic counting and bacterioplankton by 16S rRNA gene sequencing (Erken).

Base level: Floating chambers are used for determining Green House Gas, GHG, (CO2 and CH4) emissions from aquatic systems. The sampling strategy is based on the lake depth structure and is individual for the different stations. It is based on three transects of each 4 chambers located so that the depth intervals from 0.5 to 4 m are covered.  

Advanced level: Micrometeorological eddy covariance flux towers (lakes) are used to measure CO2, CH4, H2O, and heat flux (Svartberget, Erken and Skogaryd). The flux protocol will be harmonized with ICOS. In addition to the vertical GHG emissions, lateral fluxes of dissolved and particulate C species (DOC, POC, DIC) are measured in in- and outflowing streams. Required data (C concentrations and stream discharge) will be generated within layers 2 and 3 and standardized methodology for lateral C flux calculations will be used.